Saturday, May 5, 2012

Civil Services Preliminary Examination 2012 Paper 2-Practice Paper

Read each of the following two passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.
The pioneers of the teaching of science imagined that its introduction into education would remove the conventionality,artificiality, and backward-lookingness which were characteristic;  of classical studies, but they were gravely disappointed. So, too, in their time had the humanists thought that the study of the classical  authors in the original would banish at once the dull pedantry and superstition of mediaeval scholasticism. The professional schoolmaster was a match for both of them, and has almostmanaged to make the understanding of chemical reactions as dull and as dogmatic an affair as the reading of Virgil's Aeneid. The chief claim for the use of science in education is that it teaches a child something about the actual universe in which he is  living, in making him acquainted with the results of scientific discovery, and at the same time teaches him how to think logically and inductively by studying scientific method. A certain limited success has been reached in the first of these aims, but practically none at all in the second. Those privileged members of the community who have been through a secondary or public school education may be expected to know something about the elementary physics and chemistry of a hundred years ago, but they  probably know hardly more than any bright boy can pick up from an interest in wireless or scientific hobbies out of school hours. As to the learning of scientific method, the whole thing is palpably a farce. Actually, for the convenience of teachers and the requirements of the examination system, it is necessary that the pupils not only do not learn scientific method but learn precisely  the reverse, that is, to believe exactly what they are told and to reproduce it when asked, whether it seems nonsense to them or  not. The way in which educated people respond to such quackeries as spiritualism or astrology, not to say more dangerous ones such as racial theories or currency myths, shows that fifty years of education in the method of science in Britain or Germany has  produced no visible effect whatever. The only way of learning the method of science is the long and bitter way of personal experience, and, until the educational or social systems are altered  to make this possible, the best we can expect is the production of a minority of people who are able to acquire some of the techniques of science and a still smaller minority who are able to use and develop them.
1. The author implies that the 'professional schoolmaster' (line 7) has
A. no interest in teaching science
B. thwarted attempts to enliven education
C. aided true learning
D. supported the humanists

2. The author’s attitude to secondary and public school education in the sciences is
A. ambivalent
B. neutral
C. supportive
D. contemptuous

3. The word ‘palpably’ (line 24) most nearly means
A. empirically
B. obviously
C. tentatively
D. markedly

4. The author blames all of the following for the failure to impart scientific method through the education system except
A. poor teaching
B. examination methods
C. lack of direct experience
D. lack of interest on the part of students

5. If the author were to study current education in science to see how things have changed since he wrote the piece, he would probably be most interested in the answer to which of the following questions?
A. Do students know more about the world about them?
B. Do students spend more time in laboratories?
C. Can students apply their knowledge logically?
D. Have textbooks improved?

6. Astrology (line 31) is mentioned as an example of
A. a science that needs to be better understood
B. a belief which no educated people hold
C. something unsupportable to those who have absorbed the methods of science
D. the gravest danger to society

7. All of the following can be inferred from the text except
A. at the time of writing, not all children received a secondary school education
B. the author finds chemical reactions interesting
C. science teaching has imparted some knowledge of facts to some children
D. it is relatively easy to learn scientific method.

Passage II
The announcement that Donna had reached middle age came stealthily and without warning. Donna, at 42 years old, was in perfect health. She was fit, trim, and ate only the healthiest of foods, eschewing soda and candy. She was still asked for her identification when buying wine at the grocery store. She ran several miles every day; in local road races, she was known for beating people half her age. “Forty is the new twenty!” her friends would say of Donna’s seeming agelessness. Donna heard the quip so often that a part of her believed that this aging thing was surely only for other people. That all changed during what should have been a fairly innocuous event: a trip to the Department of Motor Vehicles to renew her driver’s license. “Name?” the clerk asked, without looking up. Donna replied. “Address?”
Donna gave it to her. “Look through there, please,” The clerk gestured toward an eye-testing machine perched at the edge of the desk. “Read the first four lines,” she sighed. Donna pushed her head against the contraption. “Go ahead.” Donna was perplexed. Everything was fuzzy. “I think the glass is dirty,” Donna said, searching the desk for a tissue to wipe off the lens. “It’s not dirty,” the clerk said, her voice dripping with condescension. “There must be some problem,” Donna said, pressing her head against the machine once more. “Ma’am, do you wear glasses?” “No, no, I don’t,” Donna responded, a little embarrassed now, as other people in the room began turning to see what was going on. The clerk glanced down at Donna’s old license and back up at her. “Welcome to middle age, sweetheart. Come back when you’ve had an eye exam and gotten glasses.”
8. What proverb best fits this story?
A. Time marches on.
B. Time heals all wounds.
C. A stitch in time saves nine.
D. There is no time like the present.
9. As used at the beginning of the passage, which is the best antonym for stealthily?
A. secretly
B. patiently
C. blatantly
D. sneakily

10. As stated near the beginning of the story, if Donna is eschewing candy and soda, she is
A. overindulging in them
B. avoiding them
C. eating them in moderation
D. eating them responsibly
11. Using the passage as a guide, which best describes the meaning of "Forty is the new twenty"?
A. If you are in good shape and health, being 40 can feel like 20.
B. When people turn 40, they are likely to say they are in their 20s.
C. If you are 20 and are not in great shape, you can feel like you are 40.
D. If you stay away from junk food, you can look 40 even when you are 20.

12. As used in the middle of the passage, which is the best antonym for innocuous?
A. dangerous
B. difficult
C. juvenile
D. mature

13. What is the difference between the first four paragraphs and the rest of the passage?
A. The first four paragraphs portray Donna's pride while the rest of the passage displays her frustration.
B. The first four paragraphs highlight the good life Donna has had while the rest of the passage shows her regret.
C. The first four paragraphs emphasize Donna's youth while the rest of the passage shows that she has aged.
D. The first four paragraphs outline Donna's fitness while the rest of the passage shows she is out of shape.

14. Which best describes the clerk's attitude?
A. hostile
B. incoherent
C. patronizing
D. domineering
15. As the word is used at the end of the story, which of the following statements suggest condescension?
I. Peter is a bright student, he simply does not apply himself.
II. Ingrid is not invited to the party; she has no sense of style.
III. Cindy’s not too dumb, for a sixth grader.
A. I only
B. I and II
C. II and III
D. I, II, and III
16. The tone of the passage is best described as
A. wry
B. dark
C. lighthearted
D. passionate
17. What is ironic about the clerk calling Donna "ma'am"?
A. It is not proper English.
B. The clerk does not know Donna's name.
C. It is a term often reserved for older people.
D. It is unclear to whom the clerk is speaking.

18. Substracting 48% of N from N is equivalent to multiplying N by

(a) 0.48     (b) 1.48    (c) 0.52     (d) 0.42

19. Tipu’s salary has increased from Rs 7200 to Rs 8100. What is the percentage increase in Tipu’s salary?

(a) 33.33%     (b) 25%    (c) 16.66%     (d) 12.5%

20. 42% of a number is subtracted from 61% of itself and the resulting value is 38. What is the number?

(a) 100         (b) 250    (c) 200         (d) 300

21. The length of a rectangle is increased by 30% and the breadth is decreased by 25%. What is the percentage change in the area of the rectangle due to this?

(a) 2.5% increase     (b) 25% decrease    (c) 25% increase     (d) 2.5% decrease

22. If a value is increased twice successively by 20% then what is the net percentage increase in the value?

(a) 20         (b) 40        (c) 21         (d) 44

23. 10 liters of water is added to 50 liters of solution containing 20% of milk in water. What is the concentration of milk in the solution now?

(a) 20%    (b) 16.66%        (c) 12.5%         (d) 33.33%

24. A man spends 25% of money on food. After spending 50% of the remaining, he is left with Rs 375. How much money was with that man initially?

(a) 5000     (b) 4000    (c) 5800     (d) 1000

25. A man spends 60% of his income. His income increases by 40% and due to this he also increases his expenditure by 40%. Find the percentage increase in his saving?

(a) 30%     (b) 4%        (c) 4.44%     (d) None of these

26. There are 50 successive percentage discounts given in a series of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%… and so on. What is the net discount?

(a)98%         (b)2550%    (c) 100%     (d) Infinite

Directions for questions 10-11: Read the passage below and solve the questions based on it.
All students of class X took the pre-board test. One third of the class received B, one fourth received B+, one sixth received  B- and one eight of the class failed (grade C). Everyone else got A.

27. What can be the minimum number of students in class X?

(a)8         (b)48        (c) 24          (d) Cannot be determined.

28. How many students in class X got A?

(a)3         (b)6        (c) 4         (d) Cannot be determined

29. If 75% of a class of 40 students can sing and only 20% cannot dance, the maximum number of students who can neither sing nor dance is 

(a)0         (b)6        (c) 18         (d) Cannot be determined

30. 60% of the students of a class are boys and in an examination 80% of the girls scored more than 40 marks ( out of a maximum possible 150 marks) If 60% of total students scored more than 40 marks in the same examination, find the fraction of  boys who scored 40 marks or less.

(a)8/15         (b)7/15    (c) 4/5          (d) 1/5

31. A thousand people voted on a resolution with 10% of the votes being invalid. After some discussion 1000 people voted again. This time there were 20% invalid votes. The opponents were increased by 50% while the motion was now rejected by a majority, which is 300% more than it was formerly passed by. How many people voted against the resolution after the discussion?

(a)400         (b)200        (c) 300      (d) 500

32. An index of 12 shares contains among others the shares of Reliance, HLL, and Infosys with the weightage of 7%, 13%, and 15% respectively. What is the increase in the price of other shares if these three rise by 9%, 10% and 4% respectively while the index rises by 6%? 

(a)5.34%     (b)4.91%        (c4.58%      (d) Cannot be determined

33. The population of town A and B is in the ratio of 1:4. For the next two years the population of A would increase and that of B would decrease by the same percentage every year. After 2years their population became equal. What is the percentage change in the population?

(a)33.33%     (b)66.66%    (c) 25%      (d)Not Possible

34. If profit as a percentage of selling price is 25%, then what is the profit as a percentage of cost price?

(a)25%         (b)33.33%        (c) 20%      (d) 15%

35. A man sold an article at a profit of 10%. If he had charged Rs 45 more his profit percentage would have been 25%. What is the cost price?

(a)Rs 200     (b) Rs 300    (c) Rs 250      (d) None of these

36. The owner of Book point does not get either profit or loss by selling 15 books for Rs 225. How many books should he sell for the same amount to gain 25% profit?

(a) 10         (b)11        (c) 12          (d) 13

37. CP of 12 apples is equal to SP of 9 apples and the discount on 10 apples is equal to the profit on 5 apples. What is the percentage difference between CP and SP of apples?

(a)20%         (b)25%    (c) 16.66%      (d) None of these

38. A shopkeeper professes to sell his articles for CP but gives only 800gm instead of 1000gm. What is his profit percentage?

(a)20%         (b)25%        (c) 16.66%         (d)33.33%

39. Amar sold a motor to Bharat at 20% profit and Bharat sold it to Siridhar at 10% profit. Sridhar sold the same to a mechanic and received Rs 2316. If Amar had sold the same motor to the mechanic and receive the same amount the mechanic paid to Sridhar , what profit percentage Amar would have made?

(a)52%         (b)48%    (c) 33.33%     (d) Can not be determined.

40. Mahesh and Ramesh purchased a radio each for the same price and both marked up their respective radios by the same amount. Mahesh gave a discount of Rs 20 followed by another discount of 20% on the reduced price, while Umesh gave a discount of 20% followed by a discount of Rs 20. If Mahesh’s profit percentage is equal to thrice of Umesh’s loss percentage, what is the profit of Mahesh on his radio? 

(a)Rs 2         (b)Rs 3        (c) Rs 4         (d) Rs 5

41. Shadab is a very shrewd shop owner. He adjusted his electronic weighing scale in a typical way. Error percentage of his scale is directly proportional to the displayed weight of the commodity. But he gives a discount of 10% in every transaction. His weighing scale shows 5kg for 4kg. What is the actual profit percentage when the displayed weight is 10kg?

(a)35%         (b)30%        (c) -5%      (d) 50%

42. The cost price of dozen mangoes is equal to the selling price of 10 mangoes. The selling price of apples per piece is the cost price of a mango per piece. If the profit percentage made on selling an apple is half that of selling a mango, then what is the cost of an apple, if the selling price of one mango is Rs X? 

(a)Rs X/6     (b)Rs 5X/6        (c) Rs 25X/33          (d) Rs 33X/25

The next ten questions are data interpretation questions and your answer should only reflect what is provided in the graphs.

The table above shows imports for three types of steel over a six month period. Use this information to answer the following questions.
43. Which month showed the largest decrease in total imports over the previous month?
A         B         C       D
Feb     Mar     Apr     May
44. What was the total value of sheet steel (in $) imported over the 6 month period?
A    B    C    D   
56,750     75,300    55,550     42,370   
45. What was the percentage of scrap steel imported in the 6 month period?
 A    B    C    D   
37.5    35.2    36.1      31.2   
46. What was the difference (in thousands of tons) between coil steel and sheet steel imports in the first 3 months of the year?
  A     B       C       D  
10    16    18    20
47. What was the approximate ratio of sheet steel and coil steel imports in the first 3 months of the year?
 A         B         C         D   
11:9  8:9    7:11    3:8   
The pie charts above show the percentage of students in each faculty at North West University and the number of non-US students in the Arts faculty. These percentages have been rounded to the nearest whole number. There are a total of 1049 students in the Arts faculty. Use this information to answer the following questions.

48. What percentage of students in the Arts faculty are non-US students?
 A          B        C          D   
14%    9%    30%    11%   
49. How many students are there in the Engineering faculty?
     A    B    C    D   
     420    410    390    440   
50. How many students are there at the university?
     A    B    C    D   
     4650    4560    4640    4450   
51. If six percent of Science students are Asian. How many Asian students are there studying Science?
     A    B    C    D   
     48    66    120    57   
52.    There are 34 European medical students. What percentage of the faculty does this represent?
     A    B    C    D   
     15%    18%    12%    16%   

Read each of the following two passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.

Passage III
“Leave it.” Kelsey could not begin to fathom what she was hearing. In fact, a part
of her began to feel she was in some sort of dream, unable to emerge to wakefulness. Even the contractor appeared flabbergasted. His mouth stayed in a half-open position, like a marionette waiting for its strings to be tugged. “Yes. Leave it,” Robert said again, speaking to the notion that someone in the room had asked him to clarify his words. No one had, but Robert understood the silence. What were the chances that an Indian burial ground would be found on the bucolic site where Robert and Kelsey had chosen to build their dream home? Why in the world would Robert not want to have the remains carted away, thought Kelsey. The last thing they needed were Indian poltergeists meandering around their home while the two of them were trying to renovate their marriage. Kelsey, usually deferential to her husband, knew that now was the time to make her position heard. She tried to cajole Robert away from the direction he was heading. “Sweetheart,” she cooed. “We don’t want to build on a site with human remains. It would be irreverent to the dead.” Immediately, she saw contempt in Robert’s eyes; it was a subtle reminder of how he often viewed her as superficial and self-absorbed. “What would be irreverent,” said Robert, his voice dripping with condescension, “would be to desecrate these Native graves and move them from their final resting place. Remember the culture.” No, Kelsey did not “remember the culture.” She could not care less about the culture. However, Robert, the history professor, was obviously enthralled by the contractor’s findings. He had an innate way of understanding other cultures and other people that amazed Kelsey. He did not have that gift with her. But something inside Kelsey said this was too much. She believed wholeheartedly in ghosts and could not imagine a life of them haunting her, rattling her cupboards, and shaking her floorboards. Kelsey had an unnerving sensation that problems were ahead.

53. Which of the following best explains how Kelsey feels at the beginning of the story?
A. unable to comprehend the current situation
B. unable to comprehend the decision of her husband
C. unaware of the problem at hand
D. unwilling to confront a potentially life-threatening ordeal
54. As used at the beginning of the story, which is the best synonym for flabbergasted?
A. dumbfounded
B. hostile
C. querulous
D. unimpressed

55. In paragraph 2, the author writes, “His mouth stayed in a half-open position, like a marionette waiting for its strings to be tugged.” Which of the following literary techniques is used in this quotation?
A. allusion, characterized by a casual reference to a literary or historical figure
B. simile, characterized by a comparison between two unlike things using “like” or “as”
C. denotation, characterized by the usage of the literal definition of a word
D. hyperbole, characterized by a gross exaggeration

56. The title of this passage makes use of which literary device?
A. a pun, where one word has two meanings that are both used at the same time
B. irony, where the words used mean the opposite of what they say
C. foreshadowing, which hints at what is to come later in the story
D. overstatement, where something is exaggerated for effect

57. Kelsey wants to have the remains removed because
I. She is afraid of ghosts.
II. Robert wants to leave them there.
III. She respects Native cultures.
A. I only
B. I and II
C. I and III
D. I, II, and III
58. If Kelsey had chosen to be deferential (paragraph 6) to her husband, what would she have likely told him regarding his plans?
A. "Good idea."
B. "Don't be silly."
C. "I'll leave you."
D. "I’m not sure."

59. Which adjective best describes Kelsey and Robert’s marriage?
A. busy
B. appalling
C. strained
D. good-natured
60. What about Robert seems to keep him from wanting to move the gravesite?
A. He is controlling.
B. He fears the Indians.
C. He cares about cultural history.
D. He is afraid of ghosts.

61.  In paragraph 7, the author writes, “She tried to cajole Robert away from the direction he was heading."Which of the following is the best way to rewrite the above sentence while keeping its original meaning as used in the story?
A. She tried to compromise with Robert to go the other direction.
B. She tried to force Robert to change directions.
C. She tried to entice Robert away from the direction he was heading.
D. She tried to threaten Robert about the direction he was heading.

62. As used at the end of the story, which is the best antonym for desecrate?
A. honor
B. excavate
C. defile
D. criticizen

Passage IV
I was 16 when my father unequivocally decided he would send me to wilderness camp for several months. He had threatened to do it many times before, but my mother had always managed to prevent him from actually packing me up and shipping me off. This time he was dead set on it. My latest transgression was viewed as the last straw. In a fit of unbridled rage, I had shoved my math teacher down a flight of steps at school. He broke his arm in two places and severely dislocated his shoulder. The man hadn’t done a thing to me. I am hard-pressed to remember why I was so irritated at him. Anyway, Mr. Ford, my math teacher, had agreed not to press charges as favor to my dad. He was a friend of my dad’s from way back. Mr. Ford knew what was at stake. We all did. Dad was in the middle of a tight race for sheriff in our town. This latest “Danny Thing,” as my reckless behavior was now called, had all my dad’s closest advisors talking. “John, he’s your son and he’s a kid, but he is dragging you down,” I heard Jake Hutch tell my dad through his closed office door the night after I pushed Mr. Ford. “If it appears you can’t set the course for enforcement in your own home, how can you set the course for this town?” So, off to Pisgah National Forest I went. I knew in my heart that “Wilderness Camp” was surely just a euphemism for “Torture Center.” I imagined hours of untold abuse at the hands of some lumberjack-sized drill sergeant. I resolved not to be broken and to emerge from the program unchanged. I was who I was. Nearly every day for six months, a small group of other troubled teens and I lugged our 30-pound backpacks on a trek that covered about 10 miles. We hiked in a rugged wilderness that seemed untouched by civilization. The grandeur of the sky, rock, and wilderness made me reverent. Our counselors were firm but kind, not the ogres I had imagined. We learned how to make a fire without matches and create a shelter with twigs, branches, and grass. We learned which plants were safe to eat out in the wild. Late into the night, we talked about our fears and hopes. We were devoid of radios, televisions, and cell phones. I felt myself change. I was calm and often reflective. My old, impulsive self was gone. One morning, six months later, my dad came to pick me up. I ran to hug him and saw relief and love in his eyes.
“So what’s it like being sheriff?” I asked on the ride home. “I lost the race, Danny,” he said. “I’m sorry, Dad.” I knew my behavior probably had a lot to do with his defeat. Dad squeezed my shoulder and brought me close. “As long as I don’t ever lose you, I’m okay.”

63.  Which best describes the double meaning of the title?
A. Danny goes to wilderness camp; it is in a national forest.
B. Danny is out of control; he is sent into the wilderness.
C. Danny changes at wilderness camp; his father loses a tight race for sheriff.
D. Danny hikes in the rugged wilderness; he becomes respectful of nature and others.

64. "I was 16 when my father unequivocally decided he would send me to wilderness camp for several months."
Which of the following is the best way to rewrite the above sentence (from paragraph 1) while keeping its original meaning as used in the story?
A. I was 16 when my father angrily decided he would send me to wilderness camp for several months.
B. I was 16 when, over the course of several months, my father decided he would send me to wilderness camp.
C. I was 16 when my father tentatively decided he would send me to wilderness camp for several months.
D. I was 16 when my father decided without question he would send me to wilderness camp for several months.

65.  What does the idiomatic
expression, "the last straw,"
(in paragraph 2) suggest?
A. the biggest problem of all
B. the worst thing someone could have done
C. the last in a line of unacceptable occurrences
D. the deed someone wishes he or she could take back
66.  As used in paragraph 2, which is the best antonym for unbridled?
A. amusing
B. peaceful
C. restrained
D. understandable
E. scarce

67. What lesson did Danny seem to learn in this passage?
A. Fight fire with fire.
B. Faith will move mountains.
C. Nature exceeds nurture.
D. A reed before the wind lives on, while mighty oaks do fall.
68. What is a euphemism (paragraph 6)?
A. a code word
B. a nickname
C. a different name
D. a less offensive term
E. a meaningless title

69. What kind of character is Jake Hutch in this passage?
A. round, meaning he/she is fully developed
B. protagonist, meaning he/she is the main character
C. antihero, meaning he/she lacks heroic traits
D. flat, characterized by having only enough traits to fulfill his/her function in the passage
70. "The grandeur of the sky, rock, and wilderness made me reverent."
Which of the following is the best way to rewrite the above sentence (from paragraph 7) while keeping its original meaning as used in the story?
A. I was awed by the majesty of the sky, rock, and wilderness.
B. I felt small in comparison to the sheer size of the sky, rock, and wilderness.
C. The power of the sky, rock, and wilderness made me regret my past behavior.
D. The inherent danger of the sky, rock, and wilderness made me nervous.

71.  What is evident by the end of the passage?
I. how much Danny has changed
II. how much John loves his son
III. that John has given up running for office
A. I only
B. I and II
C. II and III
D. I, II, and III

72.  If the counselors at the wilderness camp had been ogres (paragraph 8), how might have they behaved?
A. by giving teenagers water only when they were thirsty
B. by making the teenagers figure out how to build a fort in the rain
C. by refusing to treat the teenagers’ wounds when they got injured
D. by encouraging the teens to socialize with one another even if they didn't want to

Direction (Q. 73-80) : In each of the questions below are given four statements following by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements known facts. Read all the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements disregarding commonly known facts.
Give answer (a) : if only Conclusion I follows.
Give answer (b) : if only Conclusion II follows.
Give answer (c) : if either Conclusion I or II follows.
Give answer (d) : if neither Conclusion I or II follows.
Give answer (e) : if both Conclusion I or II follows.

73. Statements : Some pins are magnets. Some magnets are scales. Some scales are trucks. All trucks are buses.
Conclusion : I. Some trucks are pins.
         II. No truck is pin.
74. Statements : All jungles are trees. All trees are roads. All roads are houses. All houses are buildings.
Conclusion : I. All trees are houses.
         II. Some buildings are roads.
75. Statements : All tablets are packets. No packet is bag. Some bags are toys. All toys are puppets.
Conclusion : I. Some puppets are tablets.
         II. Some puppets are bags.
76.. Statements : Some desks are tables. Some tables are chairs. Some chairs are benches. Some benches are cots.
Conclusion : I. Some chairs are desks.
         II. Some cots are tables.
77.. Statements : All bangles are rings. All rings are bracelets Some bracelets are jewels. Some jewels are stones.
Conclusion : I. Some stones are bangles.
          II. Some jewels are rings.
78. Statements : All trousers are pants. Some pants are shirts. All shirts are buttons. Some buttons are threads.
Conclusion : I. Some threads are pants.
          II. Some buttons are trousers.

1. b 2. d 3. b  4. d 5. c 6. c 7. e  8. a  9. c 10. b 11.a 12. a 13. c 14.  c 15. c 16. a 17. c  18. d 19. d 20. c 21. d 22. d  23. b 24. d
25. c 26. c 27.c  28.d  29. c 30. b 31.a 32.a 33. a 34. b 35.b  36.c  37. d  38.b 39. d 40.b 41. a 42. c 43.b  44.c  45. d 46.  d 47.a
48.d  49. b 50. b 51. d  52. A  53.b 54. a 55. b  56. a  57. A  58. A 59.c  60. C 61. C 62. A  63. b  64. d 65. C  66. C  67. c  68. D
69. d 70.a  71. B 72. c 73. c 74. E 75. B 76. D 77. D 78. D

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